The intention this time was to address a number of both experimental techniques and methods for the data treatment introduced in the last ten years or so in different fields of the atmospheric sciences. The volume is quite arbitrarily organized in four chapters: the first three divide the different techniques according to the location of the measuring instrumentation ground, air and space with the fourth chapter dealing with theory and analysis. Observations reported here were carried out for a total of 22 nights and 276 scans during July to December 1969 and for a total of 7 nights and 72 scans during July to December 1968. The profiles thus obtained show large amounts of aerosols of volcanic origin in the lower stratosphere, and negatively correlated laminated structures in the ozone and in the aerosol content. Einaudi finally gives an extensive review of the problems posed by the gravity waves on the prediction of severe weather. Measurements have been carried out with a tilting interference filter photometer. Sparling 1994 , Trajectory Modelling; Diagnostic Tools in Atmospheric Physics, Proc.
The average Lidar Ratio at 532 nm is about 30 sr. It can measure vertical profiles of the volume backscattering cross section of the atmosphere at wavelength 532 nm, in a height region extending from the boundary layer to the upper stratosphere; from such data it is possible to infer the molecular and aerosol concentration of air, and derive quantities such as atmospheric temperature. During the flight, a significant change of the ocean albedo is observed at the Rio de la Plata estuary. The internal consistency of the lidar measurements points to a precision of 0. In this paper we consider the energetic budget for the dust particles and estimate their temperature Tp and the related Na evaporation rate. A relative calibration of the background noise measurements at 355 and 532 nm was obtained using the nadir radiances simulated by a radiative transfer model LibRadTran. Lidar measurements of the stratospheric aerosol burden over Frascati 42°N - 13°E in the period March '82 - March '83 are reported.
The technique described here is used to measure in emission the spectroscopic features of many important atmospheric minor constituents in the far infrared from 30 to 300 μm. The first three chapters divide the different techniques according to the location of the measuring instrumentation ground, air and space , and the fourth chapter deals with theory and analysis. Waters appearing in the E. Please notice that some documents are protected by institutional policy. Pinatubo have been observed during 6 balloonborne backscatter soundings in January and February 1992 under different polar vortex conditions from Thule, Greenland. In this paper, the analysis presented in a related paper by Fiocco et al.
Measurements of Na twilight emission indicate an increase after the crossing by the Earth of the orbital planes of Comets Halley and Encke. Some results of measurements carried out at Lampedusa island 35. A model for the dispersiorl of the Mt. The quality assessment is essential to the use of the same data for the possible detection of the trend in ozone and temperature. A significant increase of the aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet is observed, and is attributed to steep variations of the particles' refractive index. According to backward trajectories, the airmasses arriving at Lampedusa spent a large fraction of the previous days over central Sahara on 14 July, while passing over northern Africa on 16 July. Volcanic aerosols were observed throughout the winter at all stations.
A Doppler sodar was simultaneously operated to provide independent measurements of vertical velocity. They report on the sampling of aerosols and gases in the lower stratosphere. Short-term trajectory analysis do not provide firm evidence for chemical phenomena occurring on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds or volcanic aerosol: such possible actions appear to be masked by the dynamical phenomena. Vasini waited patiently also this time for those contributors who are always too busy. Their content, however, is very similar to the lecture by J. Measurements of global ultraviolet, global and diffuse visible radiation, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution, and ozone amount have been performed at the island of Lampedusa 35. Mazzi and her staff helped in every way they could.
The independence of the absorption coefficient on the temperature in this spectral region is confirmed, within experimental errors, at least at 230 and 299 K. This digital collection allows users to browse, search and access manuscripts, journal articles, theses, conference materials, books, book-chapters, web products. In the Mediterranean a large role is played by desert dust originating in the Sahara. Polvani 2007 , A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. The School was held in the framework of the International School of Physics E. Ricci, was very supportive in having after two years another school on atmospheric physics.
The ozone absorption cross section in the 590 to 610 nm spectral range, a portion of the Chappuis bands, was measured at different temperatures. Measurements show that the aerosol vertical distribution is largely influenced by Saharan dust, which produces a strong annual cycle both in aerosol vertical extension and optical depth. The background noise measured by the instrument, pointing to the nadir, provided an uncalibrated radiometric measurement of the solar radiation reflected and scattered from the surface and the atmosphere, while the lidar backscattering ratio profiles allowed to identify zones devoid of clouds. Maria di Galeria, Italy - crisitem. Provenzale 1996 Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system. A comparison of the velocity power spectra provided by the two systems shows good agreement at small values of the frequency; at large values, because of the limited spatial resolution of the sodar, its readings were consistently lower than those of the lidar.
Part I: climatology and modeling benchmarcks, J. The aerosol surface area density was increased by factors 10—50, compared to the background levels at pre-volcanic conditions. The equilibrium conditions of a given aerosol particle size and composition are a function of the altitude, time of day, season, and planetary albedo. The Varenna environment was gorgeous as usual and provided the right atmosphere in which lecturers and students could interact productively. Data support the hypotheses that dust particles of cometary origin enter the atmosphere and fragment into small grains, and that Na is produced by sublimation from the grains.
The presence of these structures is confined to the region below approximately 18 km. Scattering ratios up to 10 were observed. Fujikava 2010 , A major stratospheric sudden warming event in January 2009, J. A radiative transfer model is used to reconstruct the observed radiative fluxes at the surface and the radiance at the satellite altitude, and to estimate the direct aerosol radiative forcing in the 290—800 nm and in the visible spectral range. Abstract: This volume addresses a number of experimental techniques and methods for the treatment of data introduced in the last ten years or so in different fields of the atmospheric sciences. Parameters of lognormal distributions have been derived, using a least square approach between observed and calculated backscatter coefficients from Mie theory. Maria di Galeria, Italy - dc.