It may be a discontinuous phenomenon, reflecting the fact that depression is relatively rare in child- hood. London: Univer- sity of London Press. Social Support At adolescence, girls begin to rely less heavily on their parents for sup- port and guidance and instead turn to their peers. This may contribute to daughters feeling less entitled, and less likely when there is a struggle, to try to keep things that they want. These introductory sources can help you choose a research topic and introduce you to relevant areas of research and key questions in the field. American Psychiatric Association 1 994.
Teenage girls — Mental health. In adolescents who were normal, depressed, or depressed with comorbid externalizing problems Klimes-Dougan et al. Youths with subclinical symptoms also benefited from cognitive restructuring and role- playing designed to increase social skills. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Parents often have higher expectations for mature interpersonal be- havior in girls, are less tolerant of their anger and misbehavior, and more likely to override or negate assertive behaviors in girls than boys. Modeling of depressive behavior by mothers may be particularly salient to girls and linked to sex roles for women and girls. Con- sidering the socialization practices that are more normative for girls than for boys and vice versa may help clinicians develop parent and teacher interventions that fit within their customary ways of behaving and are thus more acceptable to them.
Boys' and girls' peer groups differ in their composition and custom- ary activities. Frequent interests and behaviors that occur among in- dividuals with autism and Asperger's Syndrome e. We cannot assume that theories de- veloped for boys will apply equally well to girls. Sex differences in cognitive abilities have been proposed to ex- plain the male preponderance of certain disorders such as autism. The fact that young children with an emotionally distressed caregiver fundamentally cannot help the parent would be expected to lead to feelings of helpless- ness and failure.
Although gender and gender identity are related to a child's sex, they are not synonymous with it. Genetics are also involved in the etiology of depression through their effect on sensitivity to environmental events. The Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Female Development 357 Penelope K. Dogs initially exposed to uncontrollable shock became impaired in subsequent efforts to escape from or control shock. Both diagnostic and dimensional assessments of depression are considered in an effort to understand the processes by which girls become progressively and disproportionately more afflicted than males over time. Perhaps one of the most important truths about development is that it is a process versus an outcome that affects all living organisms in some similar ways — organisms begin life and grow, usually in size and almost certainly in complexity.
This may lead to feelings of helplessness and anxiety about how to function in the larger world. To the extent that autonomy promotion and secure relationships are threatened or lessened for girls, these environmental factors could contribute to greater depression. In a longitudinal study of adolescents Ge et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Bio- logical Sciences, 358, 361-374. A first and obviously necessary step in creating gender -sensitive treatment approaches will be to examine whether the best available evidence-based interventions are equally effective for boys and girls, and to examine factors that contribute to treatment outcome for each gender separately.
Cognitive- behavioral treatment of adolescent depression. Young children's responses to expressions of anger and affection by others in the family. The repertoires children develop for dealing with the worlds they in- habit differ, to some degree, for girls and boys. Girls' greater emotionality and openness to the expression of sadness could, under some circumstances, make it difficult to modulate this emotion. Or, continuity may be present but take a less direct form. Because depression is infrequent in childhood it is useful to cast a wider net for early biological markers by focusing more broadly on closely related internalizing symptoms of anxiety, tearfulness, and shyness or inhibition. Behavioral and Cognitive Learning Theories Behavioral theories of depression focus on learning and environmental contingencies.
Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206. Developmental cross-cultural studies would help to determine the ways in which biology, culture, and socialization interact to produce the sex differences in rates and ratios of depression. Young, Fogg, Scheftner, Keller, and Fawcett 1990 found that women only report more symptoms at higher levels of depression, such that differences in symptom reports were due to differences in depression, not to diagnostic criteria. Societal and cultural factors are also implicated in the definition of disorder for girls. In this view, cultural reinforcement of the feminine ideal or stereotype promotes behaviors that are dependent, relationship -driven, emotional, helpless, passive, and self-sacrificing.
In a recent review, Piccinelli and Wilkinson 2000 concluded that while artifact may contribute slightly to more depression in females, the substantial sex differences in depres- sion are genuine. Child De- velopment, 55 1 , 17-29. Whereas boys' play is char- acterized by attention to objects e. We are at the beginning stages in understanding the etiology of depression in girls and planning efficacious treatments and early interventions. Gender differences in symptoms of depression among adolescents. Studies of mood have implicated both frontal and parietal regions of both left and right hemispheres Davidson, 1994; Heller, 1990.
Dependent in- terpersonal events, in particular, are closely tied with depression for ado- lescent girls Rudolph et al. While research on rumi- nation and depression has focused on ruminative responses to depression beginning in adolescence, the process of rumination is likely to be present before depression develops. For example, the combination of good language development and relational focus should increase young girls' chances of developing good interpersonal relationships with family and friends. For example, it is informative to know what combination of influ- ences may serve as risk factors for girls' development of depression or eat- ing disorders, or as protective factors for girls' low rates of early-onset con- duct problems. In this view, social support may inhibit illness progression by decreasing the perception and neurobiological impact of stressors.