The next play, Pericles, was dated 1619; it continued the signatures from The Whole Contention, but abandoned the page numbering entirely. The resulting texts stand somewhere between the usual system as it functioned in the theatre and the classical system adopted by Jonson when he prepared his plays 84 The First Folio for print. This is especially the case in so far as early modern staging practices were more governed by convention than later, more naturalist forms of theatre. Author and Collaborator ; 2. But the change was not systematic. Later chapters examine the current critical edition, explaining the procedures that transform early texts in to a very different cultural artefact, the edition in which we regularly encounter Shakespeare. Perhaps there was indeed a second hand in the stage version of Sejanus.
It may have been implied that Shakespeare was the author. The British Academy generously funded travel to present work in progress at the Shakespeare World Congress, Brisbane, 2006. It is designed to set the text forth as a literary artefact, and so to draw it away from the environment of theatre. If the combined opening entry and annotation provide the Sergeant with two entries, Hand C, like Shakespeare, evidently did not realize that Sir Thomas More had no entry at all. But that process is incomplete, and a typical complete works of the twentieth century followed the First Folio precedent of ignoring or diminishing the issue of collaboration. The mechanics of transmission from the quartos to the Folio are complex in themselves. According to the chronological sequence of texts in the 1986 Oxford Shakespeare Complete Works, Measure for Measure was the next play Shakespeare wrote after revising Sir Thomas More.
The outcome of the interlineation has a close parallel for the metre in Shakespeare. He is a member of the editorial boards of Arden Early Modern Drama, the Malone Society, and the Oxford Collected Works of Thomas Middleton, and is an editor of the Oxford Shakespeare Complete Works. Second, it sustained the narrative of piracy by aligning the allegedly irregular circumstances 96 Mapping the Text of publication noted by Pollard with an activity on the part of actors that could readily be interpreted as theft. Or he might have guessed where the verse line-break should fall, using punctuation or syntax as a guide: And thers no doubt, but mercy may be found Yf you so seek it. The surviving theatre playbooks, about twenty in number, are far from homogeneous. Unfortunately, work was at this stage proceeding on plays for which no printed copy was available, so Compositor E was assigned to work on a later section of the Tragedies. Times Higher Education Supplement Useful to undergraduates who are keen to extend and complicate their sense of the Shakespeare text.
According to Hinman, the printing of the Folio took from February—March 1622 to November 1623. Three 70 The First Folio years after the Jonson Folio, in 1619, an irregular collection of ten plays attributed to Shakespeare was published in quarto by Thomas Pavier. If the Folio texts often relate to playbooks, on what basis could they be excluded from the editorial process? The implication is less precise than in Romeo and Juliet does it refer to all the events or only some of them? Troilus and Cressida, Q1 1609 , British Library Halliwell-Phillipps copy, C. For his heart to be full of woe is particularly exceptional. Will Sharpe gave valuable feedback such as can be expected only of a textual scholar. Shortening of a text, for instance, can be an effect of adaptation rather than poor memory.
In the case of King Lear we witness in the variants between the First Quarto and Folio what is now widely regarded as a revision for the theatre in which Shakespeare himself played the decisive role. Wells demonstrated that early spellings are unreliable as a guide to pronunciation. There remain limitations to this kind of testing. As we have seen, the distinction cannot be upheld rigorously, for the theatre company was involved in the original instigation of the work, and the dramatist, or dramatists, could remain involved after completing a draft by way of copying and revision as the rough draft evolved towards the licensed playbook. As its initial exclusion is explained by the reuse of existing printed sheets, there is no need to suppose that it was missing from the manuscript from which the compositors set the main part of Troilus and Cressida; it was probably part and parcel of the manuscript.
Therefore the editor needs to be especially alert to the possibility that the base text reading might be defensible. Each book is written by an authority in its field, and combines accessible style with original discussion of its subject. Only about 48 per cent of plays were reprinted. The play is divided into scenes, with a series of stage directions naming both the roles and the actors, who were to play them. Here are some of them: Line 2. Any two-text King Lear is vulnerable to similar criticisms that pull in two opposing directions. There is an example of a change of compositors within Sheet B, at the beginning of sig.
It will reconstruct the preparation and printing of the 1609 Quarto. Even that daring and eccentric volume was not devoted entirely to plays from the public stage, as it included the text of masques and non-dramatic poetry and prose. A book apparently could be and occasionally was issued with a licence on the manuscript itself without entry in the Register, which would save the stationer from paying the separate fee that was required for entry. Q1 is wrong in naming Bushy, because later in the scene, after l. The new comic matter is an end in itself, but it might also be designed to ward off the Master of the Revels, by defusing the political urgency of the insurrection and making its supporters look more foolish. A working solution must have been achieved in performance, but in this case is absent in both the early authoritative texts.
He establishes incontrovertible evidence that they occasionally made alterations. But the 78 The First Folio differences remain. In practice this means that the vast majority of readers would be misled by an edition that retains error on the basis that it belongs to a particular textualization in print. In 2005, a second edition of the Complete Works was produced. But the casting-off was usually performed to a good standard of accuracy.
The fact that it was nine years before there was a second edition 1632 tells us that the team of publishers must have regained their investment only slowly. And invocations of the author as the source of the correct reading sound either naive or apologetic. The raw process of composition seems to be witnessed. Another response would say that the erosion of Welsh Emendation and Modernization 135 identity and nationhood is all to the point, both in the usages of the speakers in the play and in the linguistic practices of the Tudor period. But the way it presented Shakespeare was very carefully calculated to make a collection of theatre works look plausible as what we would now call works of literature. If, as has been suspected, some lines were cut from Folio King Lear for reasons of censorship, the Master of the Revels is likely to have been responsible. When it comes to the words themselves, the aim of modernization is not to translate.
The middle two are mostly taken up with verse dialogue. Though he might have anticipated that some of them would be published, there is little evidence that he was actively concerned with their appearance in print. There are no non-dramatic poems. It is probable nevertheless that, with the writer of a distinctive, large, and largely determined corpus of work that has been closely analysed such as is Shakespeare, the author will remain the most important single point of reference. But is it really possible that the plays in the Shakespeare Folio thought to have been based on theatre manuscripts represent a text that could have been played on stage? This is not true, and again it has taken centuries of scholarship to correct this impression. To kneel to be forgiven 14 Author and Collaborator Is safer wars than ever you can make Whose discipline is riot. He is deeply established in literary culture.